“How to Drive Social Innovation and Tackle Society's Problems”
A social entrepreneur recognizes societal oppression and marginalization and uses innovative skills and a business approach to manage a venture to address these problems and create social change. Individuals who roll up their sleeves to raise visibility of important local and global challenges, problem solve societal changes and take action are social entrepreneurs. This presentation explores the mindset of Generation Y and how to get them involved in societal change; analyzes the skills necessary to be a social entrepreneur; and presents solutions for a variety of problems facing a social entrepreneur.
“Stigma in Mental Illness: How Does Knowledge of Mental Illness Affect Public Perception of Art?”
Perception of mental illness has changed radically over time. Despite the many advances in understanding the etiology of mental illness, there is a distinct societal misunderstanding of these individuals. This stigma negatively impacts the way mentally ill individuals are perceived in their respective areas of accomplishments. For example, an artist suffering from a mental illness may be perceived as less talented simply because of their mental health. The current study tested this by hypothesizing that participants will rate a work of art lower on scales of talent, value, appreciation, and success if they believe the artist is suffering from a mental illness. Further, the severity of the mental illness will also have an effect on perception of art, specifically that schizophrenia will have the most negative reception. Participants were shown a piece of art accompanied by a brief, fictitious biography regarding the artist. Each biography differed only in that the mental illness was counterbalanced between chronic schizophrenia, major depression, and no diagnosis. Participants were also asked to fill out questionnaires measuring knowledge of mental illness and an overall stigma score.
Two studies were done using this methodology. However, the second study was a replication of the initial study and featured an online recruiting process in an effort to increase participant variety. Results indicated that the mental illness had no significant effect on the perception of art (p > .05 for all tests). Further research should be done using a varied population to get a better understanding of how mental illness may affect public perception of these individuals.
“Providing for Civil Legal Aid: What to do When Transferring Gideon Isn’t Enough”
In the years following the Gideon v. Wainwright decision, concerns about the right to counsel have been frequently considered. The criminal counsel rights solidified in Gideon have had many problems, resulting in calls for reformation. In civil courts, a solution to the issue of representation has been sought for nearly as long as Gideon has been in place.
The difficulties inherent with appointed counsel in criminal courts have led to a reluctance to transfer the procedures to civil courts. Litigants continue to make their way into civil courts: unable to afford counsel, without the skills necessary to conduct their own case, and without the infrastructure needed to offer them assistance. To address these concerns, this paper examines the history of appointed counsel and considers alternative solutions.
The paper concludes that a system of unbundled legal services may prove to be the most viable option, granting the advantages of assistance from counsel as well as those from reformation of pro se representation procedures.
“Experiments in the Integration of Arts and Mathematics in the Elementary Classroom”
In recent years, “special” classes, such as art, have lost funding in schools. My project begins with a review of current literature on the benefits of the integration of the mathematics and the arts, particularly visual arts.
During student teaching, I created and implemented lesson plans that focused on the integration of art and mathematics in a second-grade general education classroom and a fourth and fifth 8:1:1 classroom.
To accompany my project, I created a website that includes my research on the benefits of art integration, descriptions and printable versions of my lesson plans, student work samples, a chart of the standards used in the lessons, and other resources for elementary school teachers.
For each of my lessons, I provide a reflection describing whether or not I thought the lesson was successful and what I would do differently, so that educators who would like to use my lessons are aware of flaws in the plan and can appropriately differentiate.
“The Effectiveness of Emolabeling to Promote Healthy Food Choices in Children Preschool Through 5th Grade”
Obesity has become a growing global concern. Evidence indicates that ecological factors are most predictive of obesity among children, and that a new strategy, referred to as emolabeling, may effectively address ecological factors. Although the extent to which it can influence food choice is not yet known, it is tested here. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that children aged 3 to 11 years will use emolabels, or emotional correlates of health (i.e. healthy-happy, unhealthy-sad), to make healthy food choices. A cross-sectional design was used with two phases.
In Phase 1, children were taught how to use emolabels with a “faces of health” lesson. In Phase 2, children made choices between containers that were laid out on a large table in pairs and varied by taste (tastes good, no information), social norms (popular, not popular), branding (image of a minion, no image), or preference (told what food was in each container). A control pair was labeled with only emoticons. The order and presentation of the containers were counterbalanced for each variation.
Results showed that a significant proportion of children in the pre-literacy and the early literacy grades used emoticons to specifically make healthy food choices in each variation (p < .05 for all tests), except when children were told what foods were in the containers. In all, emolabeling effectively influenced food choices for healthy foods among children aged 3 to 11 years, more so than labeling for taste, social norms, and branding, but not preference.
“The Relationship Between Sports Team Affiliation and Deviant Behavior”
Previous research on the relationship between collegiate sports team participation and deviant behavior has been historically inconclusive. There are studies concluding that student-athletes are more prone to deviance as well as articles claiming that student-athletes are less prone to deviance. The current study attempts to clarify the relationship between collegiate sports and deviance by taking into consideration a distinction relatively absent from the literature: club sports. Analyzing data gathered from crime reports of a university of 2,260 students regarding crimes pertaining to the university’s 575 student athletes, the current study compared the deviant acts exhibited by division and club athletes. Crime data were separated by team and the deviant acts were grouped into three categories.
Based on these records, it was concluded that the distinction between club teams and division teams should be made when examining the relationship between student athletes and substance abuse, but not aggressive behavior.
“Proximity of foods in a competitive food environment influences consumption of a low-calorie and a high-calorie food”
The objective of this study was to test if proximity of a food or preference for a food influences intake in a competitive food environment in which one low calorie/low fat (apple slices) and one higher calorie/higher fat (buttered popcorn) food was available in the same environment. The proximity of popcorn and apple slices was manipulated and 56 participants were randomly assigned to groups. In Group Apples Near, apple slices were placed near (within arm’s reach) a participant and popcorn was placed far (2 meters away). In Group Popcorn Near, buttered popcorn was placed near and apple slices were placed far. As a control for the absence of a proximity manipulation, Group Both Near had both test foods placed near. Although participants rated the popcorn as more liked than apples, the food that was placed closer to the participant was consumed most in the two experimental groups, regardless of preference (R2= 0.38). Total energy intake was reduced most when popcorn was placed far from a participant compared to when it was placed near (R2 = 0.24).
The effects reported here were not moderated by BMI and did not vary by sex. In all, the results support the hypothesis that making a low-calorie food more proximate will reduce total energy intake and increase intake of a low-calorie food, even when a higher-calorie and more preferred food is also available, but less proximate.
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